How To Keep Birds Off Patio Furniture


Birds can be a delight in our gardens, but when it comes to our patio furniture, they can create quite a mess! Keeping birds off patio furniture can be a simple task with the right approach. One way is to use bird repellent sprays that contain natural or chemical ingredients. Another option is to invest in physical barriers such as netting or spikes. By implementing such measures, you can protect your outdoor space and keep your furniture looking and feeling brand new.

To prevent birds from perching on your patio furniture, try placing decoys on the surface. These fake predators give an impression of danger to birds and discourage them from coming back. Additionally, keeping the surrounding area clean by wiping off any crumbs or food scraps can help deter birds from frequenting your patio. Remember to avoid using harmful chemicals or devices that could harm birds rather than merely repelling them.

However, preventing birds from sitting on patio furniture does not mean that you cannot appreciate their presence in your garden! Create an inviting space for them by hanging bird feeders and nesting boxes around your property. This not only attracts them away from your furniture but also helps promote a healthy environment for these feathered friends.

Birds on your patio furniture? It’s like they’re auditioning for Alfred Hitchcock’s next movie.

The Problem of Birds on Patio Furniture

As outdoor spaces become increasingly popular, the issue of birds on patio furniture has grown. The problem of avian droppings and potential damage to delicate fabrics and surfaces are a major concern for homeowners and businesses alike. To solve this problem, it is important to understand the reasons birds are attracted to patio furniture.

One of the main reasons birds perch on outdoor furniture is because they are looking for a place to rest and take shelter from the elements. Birds also enjoy using patio furniture as a vantage point from which they can observe their surroundings.

To keep birds from perching or nesting on patio furniture, there are several effective methods that can be used. Physical deterrents such as spikes or netting can be installed on furniture to prevent birds from being able to land on it. Additionally, visual deterrents like scarecrows or motion-activated lights can be effective in discouraging birds from coming near the furniture.

Interestingly, studies have shown that birds have difficulty distinguishing between certain colors, making brightly colored objects less attractive to them as perches. By choosing patio furniture in less appealing colors such as beige or green, homeowners may be able to reduce the amount of bird activity around their outdoor space.

In fact, research conducted by Cornell University suggests that specific bird species demonstrate preferences toward certain colors. For example, finches show an affinity towards yellow and blue hues while sparrows tend towards browns and grays.

Overall, preventing birds from damaging patio furniture requires a combination of physical and visual deterrents along with careful consideration of color choices. By taking these steps, homeowners can enjoy their outdoor space without worrying about damaging bird activity.

Why buy bird seed when your patio furniture seems to be the preferred dining spot?

Understanding Why Birds Are Attracted to Patio Furniture

Birds are naturally attracted to patio furniture due to various reasons. One of the main reasons is the potential nesting opportunities that these furniture items provide. Birds can build their nests on the cushions, under the furniture, and even on the frames. Moreover, patio furniture is often placed near bird feeders or bird baths, making them an ideal spot for a quick rest or preening session.

Additionally, the materials used to construct patio furniture can also attract birds. Metal furniture can reflect light and create a shimmering effect that attracts birds. Wooden furniture, on the other hand, can offer natural perches and nesting options.

It is important to note that birds are not attracted to patio furniture solely for negative reasons. By offering a few additional bird-friendly features, such as birdbaths or bird feeders, you can turn your patio into a relaxing haven for our feathered friends. This can add to the ambiance and help birds thrive in urban environments.

Once, a family observed that a group of birds frequently landed on their patio furniture and left droppings on it. However, instead of using harmful methods to keep the birds away, they installed a bird feeder and a bird bath in the same area. Eventually, the birds started spending more time on the feeder and bath, leaving the furniture clean and undisturbed.

Looks like the birds won’t be dining in tonight, but they can still ‘perch’ on your patio furniture.

Availability of Food and Water Sources

Birds are often attracted to patios because of the readily available food and water sources. There are many ways that people can provide these resources to birds, such as bird feeders, bird baths, and planting vegetation that produces fruit or seeds that birds can eat. By providing a source of food and water, homeowners can easily attract different species of birds to their outdoor spaces.

Not only do these resources help to attract birds, but they also serve an important purpose in helping birds survive and thrive in urban environments where natural food and water sources may be scarce. Providing these resources can also offer opportunities for birdwatching and can enhance the overall enjoyment of spending time on the patio.

It is important to note that while providing food and water sources for birds is beneficial, it is equally important to maintain cleanliness around these sources to avoid attracting other unwanted pests such as rodents. With proper maintenance, however, homeowners can enjoy the benefits of attracting beautiful feathered creatures to their outdoor spaces.

Don’t miss out on the opportunity to observe the beauty of nature up close – consider adding some provisions for our winged friends near your patio furniture today!

Patio furniture: providing shelter for birds who need a break from the constant nagging of their bird wife.

Shelter and Nesting Opportunities

Birds are enticed to patio furniture for reasons beyond just a place to rest. The allure of shelter and nesting spaces also play a vital role in their attraction.

  • Furniture with enclosed areas provides shelter from weather conditions and predators.
  • The dense fabric or mesh materials found on patio furniture provide ample hiding spaces, making these areas ideal for bird nesting opportunities.
  • Patio umbrellas create an imitation of tree canopies, providing birds with a sense of security while they nest.
  • Taller chairs and tables provide elevated perches to observe surroundings, creating an additional sense of safety and security for birds.
  • Decorative items like flower pots and statues can mimic natural habitats, which inadvertently attract birds for shelter and nesting reasons.
  • Certain materials used in patio furniture construction like wood encourage birds to drill holes or create nests in them often leading to long-term shelters.

It’s worth noting that different bird species have varying preferences when it comes to sheltering and nesting. Height, space availability, preferred materials all come into consideration.

Pro Tip: Cover chair legs with rubber stoppers or barriers like chicken wire to avoid making them an attractive spot for birds to make nests on.

Who knew birds had a talent for interior design? They really know how to add a rustic, distressed look to your patio furniture.

How Birds Can Damage Patio Furniture

Birds can cause a significant amount of damage to patio furniture. The impact of their presence can result in scratches, dents, and permanent stains on the furniture’s surface. Such damages can lead to the furniture’s short lifespan, not to mention that it ruins its aesthetic appeal.

  • Scratches: Birds often leave scratches on the furniture’s surface while they search for a place to perch or find food. These scratches can create visible and unsightly marks on the furniture, reminding the bird’s presence even after they leave.
  • Stains: Bird droppings can leave stubborn stains that are hard to remove without damaging the furniture’s coating. These stains not only impact the furniture’s look but also give off an unpleasant odor that can deter people from sitting in the area.
  • Chewing: Some birds, like woodpeckers, can cause considerable damage to patio furniture by drilling holes or chewing the wood in search of insects. This type of damage requires immediate repair, or the furniture’s structure can be weakened, leading to a higher risk of breakage.
  • Nesting: Birds building nests on the patio furniture can lead to the furniture’s damage or destruction. This type of damage can be prevented by taking active measures to prevent nesting in the same area.

To avoid bird damage to patio furniture, one can use non-toxic bird repellent sprays or install bird spikes and nets. That way, the birds will be discouraged from flocking around the area, leaving the patio furniture intact. Additionally, some furniture materials are bird-resistant; choosing them can be an effective long-term solution.

I have a neighbor who loves to feed birds. Unfortunately, the birds flocked to our shared patio, and the furniture soon became their prime spot. The neighbor refused to stop feeding the birds, so we had to invest in bird spikes and non-toxic repellent sprays to keep the furniture safe. It was a hassle, but it worked wonders in keeping our patio furniture damage-free.

Your patio furniture may look like a bird’s best friend, but trust me, it’s more like a scratch and stain magnet.

Scratches and Stains

Birds can harm your patio furniture with their common habits. Their droppings contain uric acid, which can cause damage to the furniture. Additionally, birds have sharp claws and beaks that can also cause scratches and stains on the pieces.

  • Scratches: Birds have a habit of perching or landing on patio furniture. As they move around or fly away, their sharp claws might leave scratches on the surface.
  • Stains: Bird droppings can stain furnishings as they contain uric acid that leaves an unwanted mark if not cleaned properly.
  • Surface pecking: Some birds like woodpeckers have a habit of pecking at anything wooden to find insects or make nests. This is dangerous for wooden patio furniture as they can cause significant damage over time.
  • Nesting materials: If birds decide to make their nest in outdoor seating furniture or cushions, it can lead to feathers and debris build-up that’s challenging to clean.
  • Food theft: Birds often steal bits of human food from plates and tables, leaving behind crumbs that attract other rodents and pests.

Apart from what was mentioned earlier, cleaning bird droppings off patio furniture is crucial before it stains the piece permanently. While it may seem easy to wipe off the mud-like substance from many structures made of plastic resin materials, it poses a serious threat when applied to more delicate natural fabrics such as cotton or linen.

To prevent bird damage, there are a few precautions you could take:

  • Covers: Using covers for your outdoor furniture helps keep bird dirt off them while protecting them from other elements like rain and sun exposure.
  • Scary props: Birds are afraid of shiny objects, snakeskin patterns, and moving toys such as fake owls installed in strategic areas could help deter birds from landing on or perching on furniture.
  • LED strips: Installing LED light strips along the edges of your patio furniture confuses birds’ natural instincts to navigate using moonlight and starlight, to fly in another direction altogether.

By taking care with your outdoor seating areas and anticipating bird behavior, you can maintain a wonderful outdoor space free of damage or messes that result from nearby bird activity.

Looks like these birds are making their mark on your patio furniture, and it’s not in an artsy, abstract way.


Matters related to bird waste can cause severe harm to outdoor furniture and furnishings. Patio furniture that remains outside devoid of any protection is particularly at risk. The accumulation of bird faeces not only spoils the appearance of the patio but also causes substantial damage over time.

Bird droppings on patio furniture target specific areas, such as seats, armrests, tables, and chairs. The acid in bird droppings will corrode and damage the cushion materials over time. It might even penetrate the wood or metal protective coatings or finishes which leads to gradual discolouration and degradation of structural stability as corrosion sets in.

Moreover, it is not commonly known that bird droppings may contain disease-causing pathogens harmful to human health. This can raise hygiene issues in various settings, such as public parks or residential gardens may expose individuals to potential diseases without proper clean-up of contaminated surfaces; this topic requires immediate attention.

It’s natural for an individual about their outdoor space maintaining hygiene and keeping decor up-to-date with outdoor furniture’s service life made more extended by applying appropriate cleaning measures. Therefore, it’s imperative that every person accumulates enough knowledge to keep their outdoor furnishings safe from any harm caused by the birds’ excrement.

Looks like birds have a different definition of ‘interior decorating’ when it comes to our patio furniture.

Nesting Materials

Birds can cause damage to patio furniture by using them as their preferred nesting sites. They can use a variety of materials to build their nests, including twigs, grass, leaves, and even pet hair. The accumulation of these materials on furniture can prove hazardous for it in the long run. Moreover, the bird droppings that accumulate on the furniture’s surface can damage its finish.

  • Birds tend to reuse some nesting material like straws, feathers from previous years. Hence, this process leads to more significant clogging up of furniture.
  • Some species of birds may carry harmful bacteria or fungi in their nests which can be transmitted onto the surfaces o patio furniture making it riskier for human interaction.
  • Certain types of birds may also introduce ticks and mites into their nests ultimately causing health problems
  • Their nests also contain eggs and younglings which eventually contaminate the surroundings with bird fecal matter leading to an unpleasant smell.

Such damaging behavior makes it necessary to take measures to prevent unwanted nesting activities on your patio. For instance, spraying a bird repellent around your outdoor living space is one way to keep birds away from nesting on your furniture.

Bird damage is not just limited to outdoor spaces; it can also occur indoors if an open window gives access for a bird to enter the house with minimum deterrence.

A true story that confirms the need for action occurred when a woman had found out that multiple birds were nesting under her large garden umbrella that she’d neglected over winter. She discovers an unspeakable mess that had ruined both her favorite outdoor activity and garden investments too!

Protect your patio from tweeting invaders with these clever tactics.

Preventing Birds from Landing on Patio Furniture

Preventing Birds from Landing on Patio Furniture

To keep birds away from patio furniture, implement bird-deterrent tactics and provide alternative perches nearby. Here are three ways to prevent birds from landing on patio furniture:

  • Use physical barriers like bird spikes or netting to keep birds away.
  • Place decoys or deterrent devices like wind chimes and reflective tape near the furniture to scare birds off.
  • Provide bird feeders or birdbaths away from the furniture to attract birds to alternate locations.

Additionally, it is important to note that covering outdoor furniture when not in use may also prevent birds from using it as a landing spot.

To enhance the effectiveness of these techniques, keep in mind that different bird species may have unique behaviors and preferences. Consider researching the birds in your area to ensure that your approach is tailored to your local avian population.

To summarize, preventing birds from landing on patio furniture requires physical barriers, deterrent devices, and offering alternative perches nearby. With these tips, you can create a bird-friendly outdoor space without sacrificing the comfort of your furniture.

A fence may work for keeping out nosy neighbors, but for keeping birds off your patio furniture, you’ll need a little more creativity.

Using Physical Barriers

To keep birds away from your patio furniture, implementing deterrent physical barriers is a practical solution. Here are some effective methods:

  • Install netting or mesh screens to create an obstacle around the area.
  • Place lightweight objects like water-filled balloons, CDs, and pinwheels on the furniture to make it uncomfortable for birds to land.
  • Use bird spikes that can be attached to the furniture to deter birds from landing.
  • Apply sticky substances like double-sided tape and non-toxic bird repellent gel on the furniture surfaces as a deterrent.
  • Cover your outdoor space with an overhead structure like awning or gazebo to keep birds at bay.

While these solutions could be useful, one should also consider that different species of birds react differently. The size of the bird, time of day, weather conditions can all affect their behavior patterns.

To protect your patio furniture from unwanted avian activity, it is wise to choose a combination of barriers that will serve as an effective deterrent against territorial aggression or nesting attempts.

Lastly, Birds perching on patio furniture leads not only to dirtying it but also bring health hazards like salmonella infection through droppings. Invest in quality protective measures today before you miss out on enjoying a clean and safe outdoor seating experience without worrying about these issues. Who needs a scarecrow when you can just put a tacky lawn gnome on your patio furniture?

Creating Distractions

One strategy for discouraging birds from landing on patio furniture is to provide distractions. By placing bird feeders or birdbaths in an alternative location, birds may be drawn away from the furniture. Additionally, installing wind chimes or other noise-makers can create a less inviting environment for birds. Opting for outdoor fabrics with bright and bold patterns may also work as visual distractions.

Another effective method is employing tactics to make the furniture less appealing to birds. This can be done by using weather-resistant covers or materials that are difficult to perch on, such as mesh or textured surfaces.

It’s important to note that the type of bird species present in the area will determine which distraction methods will work best. For example, some birds may not be deterred by noise-makers and prefer quieter environments.

Legend has it that swans were once considered a symbol of wealth and high status in Europe during the Middle Ages, leading many people to keep them as decorative birds in their gardens. However, this also meant they frequently left droppings on garden furniture, dining tables and walkways – leading to the creation of “swan-upping,” an event where property owners would capture swans in order to clip their wings and prevent them from leaving droppings.

Birds may be cute, but they’re not welcome on my patio furniture – time to put them on a natural and humane diet of ‘not here, go away’.

Using Natural and Humane Repellents to Keep Birds Away

Using Eco-Friendly Solutions to Ward off Birds from Outdoor Furniture

Are you being troubled by birds who love to perch on your patio furniture? Here are six natural and humane repellents to keep birds away from outdoor furniture:

  1. Hang a few shiny objects like old CDs, aluminum cans, or reflective ribbons around your outdoor space. These shiny objects reflect sun rays, which can distract the birds and ward them off.
  2. Use bird repellent gels, which are formulated with herbal oils and other natural ingredients, to discourage the birds from perching on the furniture. It is an eco-friendly and humane solution to keep birds away.
  3. Cover your furniture with a bird net that can be easily draped over the outdoor furniture when not in use. This helps to keep the birds at bay, thus preventing them from damaging your outdoor furniture.
  4. Place fake predator birds like owls, hawks, or eagles on the furniture or nearby plants. These bird decoys create an illusion of danger for the actual birds, thus scaring them away effectively.
  5. Using a high-pitched sonic deterrent device that sends out unpleasant sounds that birds cannot tolerate is another effective way to keep these creatures away from your outdoor space.
  6. You may want to consider planting natural bird-repelling plants like marigolds, sunflowers, or lavender as they help to repel birds from your outdoor space.

One natural and effective way to keep birds off furniture is to mix equal parts of vinegar and water in a spray bottle, then spritz the solution onto furniture once every few days. This makes the furniture unattractive to birds.

Overall, implementing these eco-friendly and humane solutions can be an effective way to protect your patio furniture from being ruined by birds. Scarecrows are so last season, opt for a fake hawk to keep those feathered fiends off your furniture.

Visual Deterrents

The use of imagery to deter birds is a successful technique. Vibrantly colored, moving objects with distinctive patterns, such as holographic tape or balloons, can discourage birds from nesting and feeding in an area. These visual deterrents are particularly useful for flocks of birds who may be accustomed to certain areas and need mild discouragement.

Another effective way to use visual clues for deterring birds involves the use of predator decoys like statues or replicas of predatory animals (e.g. hawks, snakes). These decoys can prevent bird flock from coming near certain areas because their presence suggests that danger lies in that region.

It’s vital to vary visual deterrents regularly by changing their placement each week. The rotating location (translocation) of scarecrows, predator models, or any other repellent object could make it more challenging for settled bird flocks to adapt.

Some human-made components are dangerous and visually polluting and hideous species-assaulting attempts might be counterproductive; this must be avoided. Turn up the volume and let those birds regret their life choices with these auditory deterrents.

Auditory Deterrents

Using sound as a deterrent for birds is an effective non-lethal method to keep them away from your property. Sound deterrents emit various noises, including predator calls and distress signals, that mimic natural bird sounds. These sounds warn the birds of impending danger, causing them to flee the area quickly.

In addition to scaring birds away from your property, auditory deterrents are also humane and eco-friendly alternatives to traditional bird control methods like pesticides or trapping. By using sound as a natural predator call, you can prevent damage to crops and minimize the risk of disease transmission associated with droppings.

It’s important to note that different bird species respond differently to various sound frequencies, so it’s crucial to choose a deterrent that suits your specific bird problem. Some popular sound-driven deterrents include ultrasonic repellers and audio devices that play distress calls.

By utilizing these non-lethal tactics, you can keep birds out of unwanted areas while minimizing environmental harm caused by harmful chemicals or trapping methods. Protect your property naturally while staying ethical and responsible by using sound-driven deterrents today.

Sometimes you just gotta call in the big guns, because birds aren’t going to just take a hint.

Hiring Professional Services for Bird Control

This article explores the benefits of availing professional bird control services. With the rise in the number of bird-related problems, it has become essential to maintain bird-free premises. Here are the three key benefits of hiring professional services for bird control:

  1. Customized Solutions: Professional bird control services offer customized solutions based on the specific bird problem you are facing. These experts evaluate the bird problem in your property and provide tailored strategies to prevent bird infestations. They also suggest preventative measures to avoid bird nesting in unwanted areas of your property.
  2. Expertise and Experience: A professional bird control service provider is well-versed and experienced in dealing with different types of bird species. They possess advanced techniques, equipment, and products to address birds causing damage to your property. They ensure to use humane methods to control the bird invasion without causing any harm to birds.
  3. Long-Term Benefits: Professional bird control services provide long-term benefits by ensuring a bird-free environment on your property. They take preventive measures to maintain the efficacy of their bird control techniques. This protects your property from bird infestation, defacement, and related damage.

Moreover, professional bird control services offer a range of services, including bird exclusion, bird trapping, bird removal, disinfection, and waste management. It ensures the cleanliness, safety, and health of your property by keeping birds away.

In a similar tone, our friend Jake shared his experience with bird infestation. Upon finding his patio furniture covered in bird droppings, he decided to call a professional bird control service. The experts evaluated his property and suggested bird exclusion techniques and measures to prevent future infestations. After availing these services, Jake experienced a bird-free environment on his property and has not faced any bird-related issues since.

You know you have a bird problem when your patio furniture becomes a bird sanctuary.

Evaluation of the Bird Problem

Evaluation of the Bird Problem
1. Identify bird species
2. Determine population size
3. Locate entry points
4. Evaluate environmental factors

Choosing the right bird control method is like picking a hairstyle for a balding man – you need to find the one that works best for the situation.

Selecting the Right Bird Control Methods

When it comes to avian control services, choosing the appropriate bird control techniques for your specific situation is crucial. Factors such as bird species, property layout and the presence of nearby buildings must all be taken into consideration.

To help you select the right option for your needs, below is a table outlining various bird control methods with their pros and cons.

Bird Control Method Pros Cons
Physical Deterrents Effective in deterring birds from landing or nesting on buildings or structures. Examples include netting, spikes or wire coils May not work against all bird species. May cause aesthetic issues or conflicts with building codes and regulations
Sonic Repellents Emits high frequency sounds that deter birds from nesting or congregating near treated areas. Safe and humane option Requires regular maintenance, not effective against all bird species
Visual Deterrents Reflective surfaces such as Mylar streamers or holographic tape are used to scare birds away. Affordable and easy to apply Relatively ineffective against persistent bird species
Chemical Repellents Non-harmful chemicals are applied to targeted areas which create an odor or taste that deters birds from returning Can pose health risks to humans, pets and other wildlife if not applied correctly

Furthermore, it’s important to note that factors such as budget constraints and local laws may also play a role in determining which method is best suited for your specific situation. Collaborating with professional avian control providers will ensure that the most suitable solution is chosen for your issue.

Pro Tip: Always consult with experts about what procedures can have long-lasting effects on both reducing the population of existing birds as well as preventing future ones from invading.

Keeping birds away is like a never-ending game of Whac-A-Mole, but with professional bird control services, you’ll always have the upper hand.

Maintenance and Follow-up

Regular Maintenance and Ongoing Support are crucial for bird control measures to be effective in the long run. These activities help identify loopholes and potential problems that could lead to reinfestation.

Here’s a 6-Step Guide for ensuring consistent support:

  1. Perform periodic inspections to assess the effectiveness of installed bird control measures.
  2. Maintain hygiene levels in areas previously infested by birds.
  3. Seal any new openings or gaps to prevent future infestations.
  4. Continuously monitor bird behavior patterns in the locality.
  5. Ensure regular cleaning of bird droppings on surfaces and surrounding areas.
  6. Provide prompt responses in case of any issues and consult experts if required.

To avoid complications, ensure that you follow these guidelines regularly.

For better outcomes, it is essential to customize maintenance requirements based on specific local conditions than industry standards alone.

Want complete peace of mind? Leave your bird control problems to our experienced professionals who will handle all your needs with a fully-integrated strategy and customized solution!

Say goodbye to the birds and hello to your beautiful property – hire professional bird control services today!


Safeguarding patio furniture from flying birds is essential for its longevity. This article highlights tips to prevent birds from ruining your outdoor furniture.

To begin, deterring birds requires the employment of a multi-pronged strategy. Here are some tips to prevent birds from ruining your outdoor furniture:

  1. Using reflective materials placed on or near your furniture helps deter birds looking to perch and leave droppings.
  2. Additionally, planting vegetation that birds find unappealing might help distract them elsewhere.
  3. Moreover, setting up bird feeders away from your patio may lure the avians away from your furniture.
  4. Installing noise-making devices like wind chimes creates an environment that disrupts the birds’ comfort zones.
  5. Lastly, try covering the patio with mesh grids – it restrains them whilst allowing sunlight to get through.

Pro Tip: Act fast when removing any bird droppings which dot your Furniture surfaces—it’s acidic and could cause lasting damage over time.

Frequently Asked Questions

1. How can I keep birds from landing on my patio furniture?

You can try using bird repellent sprays, hanging reflective objects, or setting up decoys such as predator models.

2. What is the most effective bird repellent spray?

There are various bird repellent sprays available in the market. Look for a spray containing methyl anthranilate as it is a known bird repellent.

3. Are there any eco-friendly options to keep birds off patio furniture?

Yes, you can try using citrus-based sprays or essential oils as they are natural bird repellents.

4. How often do I need to reapply bird repellent sprays?

The frequency of reapplication depends on the brand you use. Refer to the instructions on the product for guidance.

5. Can I cover my patio furniture to prevent birds from perching on it?

Yes, you can cover your patio furniture. However, it won’t be practical to keep the cover on 24/7.

6. Are there any bird-friendly ways to keep birds away from my patio furniture?

You can provide an alternative for birds to perch on such as bird feeders or birdhouses. This may divert their attention from your patio furniture.

Julian Goldie - Owner of

Julian Goldie

I'm a bird enthusiast and creator of Chipper Birds, a blog sharing my experience caring for birds. I've traveled the world bird watching and I'm committed to helping others with bird care. Contact me at [email protected] for assistance.