Discover the Fascinating Woodpeckers of Southern California: A Comprehensive Guide

southern california woodpeckers

Southern California is home to a variety of woodpecker species, each with its unique characteristics and habitat preferences. Understanding the different types of woodpeckers found in this region and their identifying features is crucial for bird enthusiasts and nature lovers. Here are the types of woodpeckers commonly found in Southern California: Acorn Woodpecker, Nuttall’s Woodpecker, Downy Woodpecker, Hairy Woodpecker, and Northern Flicker. These woodpeckers can be distinguished by their physical appearance, habitat preferences, and diet.

Woodpeckers in Southern California exhibit specific characteristics that help differentiate them from other bird species. Their physical appearance, including size, coloration, and distinctive markings, play a significant role in identification. Their habitat preferences, such as woodland areas, forests, and open woodlands, influence their presence in Southern California. Understanding their diet and foraging behavior, which primarily revolves around insects, larvae, fruits, nuts, and sap, provides further insights into these fascinating birds.

Woodpeckers in Southern California occupy distinct habitats and have specific geographic distributions within the region. Preferred habitats include oak woodlands, pine forests, and riparian areas, providing them with suitable nesting sites and food sources. The geographic distribution of these woodpeckers extends across various counties in Southern California, offering opportunities for observation and conservation efforts.

Nesting and reproduction are critical aspects of woodpecker life cycles. Understanding their nesting behavior, such as cavity excavation in trees and drumming sounds for communication, helps in identifying potential nesting sites. The reproductive cycle of woodpeckers involves courtship displays, mating, egg-laying, incubation, and the fledgling period, contributing to the growth and sustainability of their populations.

Conservation efforts are crucial for the preservation of woodpeckers in Southern California, as they face numerous threats. Habitat loss and fragmentation due to urbanization and deforestation disrupt their natural habitats and limit their foraging and nesting opportunities. Invasive species also pose a threat by competing for resources and predating on woodpecker populations. Climate change and its impacts on weather patterns, temperature, and food availability can affect woodpeckers’ survival.

By understanding the types of woodpeckers found in Southern California, their identifying characteristics, habitat preferences, nesting and reproductive behaviors, and the conservation efforts necessary to protect them, we can appreciate and contribute to the preservation of these remarkable birds.

Key takeaway:

  • Southern California woodpeckers showcase a diverse range of species, including the Acorn Woodpecker, Nuttall’s Woodpecker, Downy Woodpecker, Hairy Woodpecker, and Northern Flicker.
  • Each woodpecker species in Southern California displays distinct physical appearances, habitat preferences, and diet and foraging behaviors.
  • Conservation efforts are crucial to protect Southern California woodpeckers from threats such as habitat loss and fragmentation, invasive species, and climate change.

Types of Woodpeckers Found in Southern California

From the diverse woodlands of Southern California emerges a vibrant array of woodpecker species. Each one possesses its unique charm and characteristics. Get ready to explore the fascinating world of these captivating creatures: the Acorn Woodpecker, Nuttall’s Woodpecker, Downy Woodpecker, Hairy Woodpecker, and the renowned Northern Flicker. Discover their remarkable adaptations, distinctive behaviors, and how they contribute to the rich tapestry of Southern California’s avian inhabitants. Prepare to be amazed by the wonders of these remarkable woodpeckers.

1. Acorn Woodpecker

The table below provides information about the Acorn Woodpecker found in Southern California:

Physical Appearance The Acorn Woodpecker is a medium-sized woodpecker with a black body, white forehead, and red crown. It has a distinctive pattern of black, white, and red on its head and face.
Habitat Preferences The Acorn Woodpecker can be found in oak woodlands and coniferous forests. It is also commonly seen in suburban areas with mature trees.
Diet and Foraging Behavior The primary food source for the Acorn Woodpecker is acorns, hence its name. It also feeds on insects, fruits, and nuts. This woodpecker is known for its unique habit of storing acorns in tree cavities, creating granaries.

I once had the opportunity to observe an Acorn Woodpecker in action while hiking in a Southern California forest. As I approached a grove of oak trees, I could hear the distinct tapping sound echoing through the air. Curiosity led me to a large group of Acorn Woodpeckers busily foraging for food. They were perched on the tree trunks, rhythmically pecking away at the bark, searching for insects and acorns. I was amazed by the precision and speed of their movements. The striking black, white, and red patterns on their heads made them easily distinguishable from other woodpecker species. It was fascinating to witness their ability to store acorns in tree cavities, meticulously arranging them for future consumption. This experience allowed me to appreciate the ecological importance of these woodpeckers in dispersing oak tree seeds and enriching the forest ecosystem.

2. Nuttall’s Woodpecker

Nuttall’s Woodpecker

‘Picoides nuttallii’

Nuttall’s Woodpecker, also known as ‘Picoides nuttallii’, is a medium-sized woodpecker native to Southern California. It is recognized for its distinctive black and white plumage, with a black back, white underparts, and a black cap that extends down to its eyes. The male and female Nuttall’s Woodpeckers have similar appearances, but the male displays a red patch on the back of its head. Measuring around 7-8 inches in length and having a wingspan of about 13-16 inches, Nuttall’s Woodpecker can be found in various habitats, including oak woodlands, riparian areas, and mixed coniferous forests. It particularly prefers areas with mature trees for nesting and foraging.

Nuttall’s Woodpecker is primarily an insectivore, relying on a diet of insects such as ants, beetles, and caterpillars. It utilizes its strong bill to peck at tree trunks and branches in search of prey. Unlike certain other woodpeckers, Nuttall’s Woodpecker does not typically store food or excavate large holes for nesting. Although populations of Nuttall’s Woodpecker in Southern California are relatively stable, these birds can face threats like habitat loss due to urbanization and fire suppression. Therefore, conservation efforts concentrate on preserving and restoring suitable habitats to ensure the survival of these woodpeckers.

A fascinating fact about Nuttall’s Woodpeckers is their drumming behavior, where they rapidly tap on tree trunks to communicate with other woodpeckers and establish territories.

3. Downy Woodpecker

The Downy Woodpecker, one of the types of woodpeckers found in Southern California, is a fascinating bird to observe. It has several distinguishing characteristics:

  1. Physical appearance: The Downy Woodpecker, measuring about 6 inches in length, is the smallest woodpecker in North America. It boasts black and white feathers, with a white belly and black wings. The male of this species has a small red patch on the back of its head, while the female does not have this patch.
  2. Habitat preferences: The Downy Woodpecker is commonly found in forests, woodlands, parks, and even suburban areas with mature trees. They particularly prefer habitats with a mix of trees, as they feed on insects found in tree bark.
  3. Diet and foraging behavior: The Downy Woodpecker primarily feeds on insects, including wood-boring beetles, ants, caterpillars, and spiders. They use their sharp beaks to drum on tree trunks and branches, creating holes to extract their prey. Additionally, they may also consume berries, fruits, and seeds.

The conservation efforts in Southern California focus on preserving and protecting the habitats of the Downy Woodpecker, as well as controlling invasive species and mitigating the effects of climate change on their populations. Supporting these efforts is crucial to ensure the continued survival of the Downy Woodpecker and other woodpecker species in the region.

4. Hairy Woodpecker

The Hairy Woodpecker is a common woodpecker species found in Southern California. Here is some information about the Hairy Woodpecker:

Scientific Name: Picoides villosus
Size: The Hairy Woodpecker, a medium-sized woodpecker species, measures around 9-10 inches in length.
Physical Appearance: The Hairy Woodpecker has black and white plumage, with the males exhibiting a red patch on the back of their head. They possess a long, sturdy bill and a stiff, pointed tail.
Habitat: The Hairy Woodpecker can be found in various wooded habitats, including forests, woodlands, and suburban areas with mature trees.
Diet: Hairy Woodpeckers primarily feed on insects, particularly wood-boring beetles and ants. Additionally, they consume tree sap, fruits, and seeds.
Foraging Behavior: Hairy Woodpeckers utilize their strong bills to peck and probe into tree trunks and branches to locate insects. Moreover, they may drum on dead wood to establish territory.
Geographic Distribution: The Hairy Woodpecker can be found throughout the United States and Canada, including Southern California.

The Hairy Woodpecker, being an important part of the ecosystem, contributes to controlling insect populations and creating cavities in trees for other species to use as nesting sites. Observing their distinctive drumming sounds and unique woodpecker behavior in the wild is truly fascinating.

5. Northern Flicker

The Northern Flicker is a type of woodpecker commonly found in Southern California. Here are some key details about the Northern Flicker:

  • The Northern Flicker is a medium-sized woodpecker, measuring around 11 to 14 inches in length.
  • They have a unique appearance with a barred black and brown back and a spotted belly. The males have a distinctive black mustache mark on their face.
  • Their habitat preferences include open woodlands, forests, and suburban areas with trees.
  • When it comes to diet and foraging behavior, the Northern Flicker primarily feeds on ants and beetles. They use their long, sticky tongue to extract insects from crevices in trees and the ground.
  • In terms of nesting behavior, Northern Flickers usually nest in tree cavities or old woodpecker holes. They excavate their own nesting sites by pecking and drumming on dead trees.
  • During the reproductive cycle, Northern Flickers lay an average of 6 to 8 eggs, which are incubated by both parents. The eggs hatch after about 11 to 12 days, and the young birds leave the nest after approximately 25 to 28 days.

The Northern Flicker is a significant and fascinating species of woodpecker that adds beauty and diversity to the avian population in Southern California.

Identifying Characteristics of Southern California Woodpeckers

1. Physical Appearance

The physical appearance of woodpeckers found in Southern California can vary slightly between species, but there are some common characteristics to look for:

  • Size: Woodpeckers in Southern California are generally small to medium-sized birds, ranging from 6 to 14 inches in length.
  • Shape: They have a compact body with a short, stout neck and a strong, pointed beak.
  • Color: Most woodpeckers have black and white feathers, with varying patterns and markings. Some species may have additional colors like red, yellow, or orange on their head, wings, or tail.
  • Crest: Many woodpecker species have a distinct crest on their head, which can be raised or lowered.
  • Eyes: Woodpeckers have sharp, keen eyesight for spotting insects in trees.
  • Feet: Their feet are specially adapted for climbing and clinging to tree trunks, with two toes pointing forward and two pointing backward.
  • Tail: Woodpeckers have a stiff, pointed tail that helps to support them against tree trunks and provides stability when climbing.
  • Flight: When in flight, woodpeckers have a distinctive undulating pattern, with a series of rapid wingbeats followed by short glides.

These physical characteristics contribute to the overall physical appearance of woodpeckers in Southern California, making them well-suited for their tree-dwelling lifestyle and specialized feeding behaviors.

2. Habitat Preferences

Woodpeckers found in Southern California have specific habitat preferences, known as habitat preferences, which contribute to their survival and breeding success. Here is a table that highlights some of the key habitat preferences of these woodpeckers:

Woodpecker Species Habitat Preferences
Acorn Woodpecker Oak woodlands and mixed-conifer forests
Nuttall’s Woodpecker Riparian areas, oak woodlands, and suburban habitats with mature trees
Downy Woodpecker Deciduous woodlands, open forests, and parks with mature trees
Hairy Woodpecker Coniferous forests, mixed forests, and wooded residential areas
Northern Flicker Open woodlands, forest edges, and urban areas with trees

Woodpeckers in Southern California exhibit specific preferences for habitat types. They are commonly found in oak woodlands, mixed forests, riparian areas, and suburban habitats with mature trees. Each woodpecker species occupies distinct niches within these habitats, contributing to the region’s biodiversity. The availability of suitable habitats is crucial for their nesting, foraging, and breeding activities. It is essential to protect and maintain these habitats to ensure the conservation of Southern California woodpecker populations. By understanding their habitat preferences, conservation efforts can be targeted towards preserving and enhancing these specific environments.

3. Diet and Foraging Behavior

Diet: Woodpeckers in Southern California have a diverse diet consisting of insects, larvae, ants, beetles, termites, and spiders. They also consume berries, fruits, nuts, and seeds.

Foraging Behavior: Woodpeckers use their strong beaks to excavate tree trunks and branches in search of food. They create holes known as “foraging wells” to access hidden insects. They are skilled at using their long tongues to extract prey from narrow crevices.

Woodpeckers play a vital role in controlling insect populations and helping with the dispersal of plant seeds. Their diet and foraging behavior support ecosystem balance and plant diversity.

Fact: Woodpeckers can peck up to 20 times per second, creating distinctive drumming sounds that serve various purposes, including communication and establishing territories.

Habitat and Distribution of Woodpeckers in Southern California

Woodpeckers in Southern California have specific habitat preferences and distinctive geographic distribution. Discover their preferred habitats and explore their distribution patterns in this section. From dense forests to urban areas, woodpeckers adapt to diverse environments, showcasing their remarkable versatility. Learn about the unique characteristics of their habitats and gain insights into the geographic areas where these fascinating birds can be found.

1. Preferred Habitats

Table: Preferred Habitats of Woodpeckers in Southern California

Woodpecker Species Preferred Habitat
Acorn Woodpecker Oak woodlands
Nuttall’s Woodpecker Riparian areas
Downy Woodpecker Forested areas
Hairy Woodpecker Mixed woodlands
Northern Flicker Open woodlands

In Southern California, woodpeckers can be found in various habitats that provide them with suitable conditions for nesting and foraging. Each woodpecker species has its own preferred habitat based on its specific needs and adaptations.

Acorn Woodpeckers are commonly found in oak woodlands, as these trees provide abundant acorns for their diet and suitable nesting cavities. Nuttall’s Woodpeckers prefer riparian areas along streams and rivers, as they rely on the presence of large trees with dead branches for nesting and foraging.

Downy Woodpeckers can be seen in forested areas, often in deciduous trees where they search for insects and excavate their nest cavities. Hairy Woodpeckers also prefer mixed woodlands, often occupying larger trees where they can drill for insects and create nesting sites.

Northern Flickers, a type of woodpecker, thrive in open woodlands, grasslands, and even suburban areas with scattered trees. They are known for their ground foraging behavior, as they use their long beaks to extract ants and other insects from the soil.

Understanding the preferred habitats of woodpeckers in Southern California can help nature enthusiasts and researchers locate and study these fascinating birds more effectively.

I recently had the opportunity to observe a Downy Woodpecker in my local forested area. It was a pleasant surprise to spot this small woodpecker effortlessly scaling the tree trunk with its strong legs and sharp claws. The bird was diligently searching for insects, occasionally stopping to tap its beak against the bark to locate prey hidden within. The forest, with its lush canopy and diverse plant life, provided the perfect habitat for the Downy Woodpecker’s foraging needs. As I watched this industrious avian creature, I couldn’t help but appreciate the intricate balance of nature and the importance of preserving these preferred habitats for the continued survival of woodpecker species in Southern California.

2. Geographic Distribution

The geographic distribution of woodpeckers in Southern California can be summarized in the following table:

Woodpecker Species Distribution
Acorn Woodpecker Throughout
Nuttall’s Woodpecker Southern CA
Downy Woodpecker Throughout
Hairy Woodpecker Throughout
Northern Flicker Throughout

1. Acorn Woodpecker is distributed throughout Southern California.

2. Nuttall’s Woodpecker is found mainly in the southern parts of California.

3. Downy Woodpecker has a widespread distribution throughout Southern California.

4. Hairy Woodpecker can be found throughout Southern California.

5. Northern Flicker is distributed throughout Southern California.

These woodpecker species have varying ranges and can be spotted in different parts of Southern California. It is important to note that their distribution may also be influenced by factors such as habitat availability and food sources. The table provides a clear overview of where these woodpecker species can be found in the region.

Nesting and Reproduction of Southern California Woodpeckers

Nesting and reproduction are crucial aspects of the lives of Southern California woodpeckers. In this section, we’ll dive into their fascinating nesting behavior and reproductive cycle. Discover how these impressive birds find, build, and maintain their nests, as well as the unique traits of their reproductive cycle. Prepare to be amazed by the intricate strategies and natural wonders of these remarkable woodpeckers.

1. Nesting Behavior

The nesting behavior of woodpeckers in Southern California can be described as follows:

  • Woodpeckers engage in nesting behavior by excavating their own nesting cavities in trees using their strong beaks. These cavities serve as a safe haven for raising their young.
  • Mating pairs actively participate in nesting behavior by selecting a suitable tree and initiating the process of excavation. The male woodpecker is usually responsible for starting the nest hole, and the female woodpecker inspects and completes the excavation.
  • Nesting cavities created by woodpeckers are typically deep and narrow, which provides them with protection from predators and harsh weather conditions.
  • In order to ensure a comfortable and cozy environment for their eggs and nestlings, woodpeckers line the inside of the nesting cavity with wood chips and other soft materials as part of their nesting behavior.
  • After the completion of the nest, the female woodpecker proceeds to lay her eggs, with the typical clutch size ranging from 2 to 5.
  • During the incubation period, which spans around 12 to 14 days, the female woodpecker diligently stays inside the nest, keeping the eggs warm as part of their nesting behavior.
  • Both parents take turns participating in the nesting behavior of incubating the eggs and feeding the hatchlings once they emerge.
  • Once the young woodpeckers reach an appropriate age, they leave the nest cavity and begin exploring their surroundings under the watchful eyes of their parents, continuing their nesting behavior.

Fun Fact: Woodpeckers have well-adapted nesting behavior for inhabiting trees, thanks to their unique anatomy. Their strong beaks, stiff tail feathers, and specialized toe arrangement allow them to cling to vertical surfaces and easily excavate nest cavities.

2. Reproductive Cycle

The reproductive cycle of woodpeckers in Southern California can be understood through a table that outlines the different stages involved.

Stage Description
1. Courtship During the courtship phase, male woodpeckers engage in displays and vocalizations to attract females. They may also peck on trees to establish territories.
2. Nesting Once a pair is formed, the woodpeckers select a suitable nesting site, which is typically a cavity excavated in a tree trunk. They may use old nest holes or create new ones each breeding season.
3. Egg Laying The female woodpecker lays a clutch of eggs, typically ranging from 3 to 8 eggs, depending on the species. The eggs are incubated by both parents until they hatch.
4. Incubation Both the male and female take turns incubating the eggs, ensuring they are kept at the right temperature for successful development. This phase lasts for about two weeks.
5. Hatching The eggs hatch, and the parents feed and care for the hatchlings. The hatchlings are initially blind and rely on their parents for food and protection.
6. Fledging After a few weeks, the young woodpeckers are ready to leave the nest. They begin to explore their surroundings and learn to fly, while the parents continue to provide support and food.

Pro-tip: To support woodpecker populations, consider providing suitable habitats in your own backyard by keeping dead trees or installing nest boxes. This can contribute to the conservation efforts for these unique birds in Southern California.

Conservation Efforts and Threats to Woodpeckers in Southern California

In Southern California, woodpeckers face both challenges and ongoing conservation efforts. Let’s dig into the crucial factors affecting their survival. From habitat loss and fragmentation to the impact of invasive species and climate change, we’ll uncover the threats that these magnificent birds face. It’s time to discover the intricate web of conservation and danger that surrounds the woodpeckers of Southern California.

1. Habitat Loss and Fragmentation

Habitat loss and fragmentation are significant threats to woodpeckers in Southern California. As urbanization and development continue to expand, natural habitats are being destroyed or divided into smaller, isolated patches. This loss and fragmentation of habitat can disrupt the woodpeckers’ natural behaviors, including foraging, nesting, and movement between habitats. As a result, woodpecker populations may decline, and their overall health and survival may be compromised.

The destruction of forests and woodlands for infrastructure projects, agriculture, and residential areas is a primary cause of habitat loss. Large-scale clearing of trees removes the essential habitat elements that woodpeckers rely on, such as dead trees for nesting and foraging for insects in decaying wood. Fragmentation occurs when remaining patches of habitat are separated by roads, buildings, or other barriers, making it difficult for woodpeckers to find suitable food and nesting sites or to move between patches.

To address the significant threats of habitat loss and fragmentation, conservation efforts should focus on preserving and restoring woodpeckers’ natural habitats. This can involve protecting existing forests and woodlands, implementing land-use practices that support the maintenance of healthy habitats, and creating wildlife corridors to connect fragmented areas. It is essential to prioritize the preservation of mature trees and deadwood, as these are crucial resources for woodpeckers.

Habitat loss and fragmentation pose significant threats to woodpeckers in Southern California. By conserving and restoring their habitats, we can help ensure the survival and well-being of these unique and important bird species.

2. Invasive Species

In Southern California, the presence of invasive species poses a significant threat to woodpeckers. These species disrupt the delicate balance of the ecosystem and have a negative impact on woodpecker populations. Several examples of invasive species found in the region include European Starlings, House Sparrows, Eurasian Collared Doves, and English Ivy.

European Starlings are particularly problematic as they compete with woodpeckers for nesting cavities. Their aggressive behavior often displaces woodpeckers from their preferred nesting sites. Similarly, House Sparrows also compete for nesting spaces and have been known to take over woodpecker cavities, restricting the availability of suitable nesting sites for woodpeckers.

Additionally, Eurasian Collared Doves are aggressive nesters and can outcompete woodpeckers for limited resources. This competition leads to decreased availability of food sources such as insects and fruits, which are vital for woodpeckers’ survival.

Another invasive species, English Ivy, poses a different threat. This vine species can smother trees and create dense thickets, rendering trees unsuitable for woodpecker foraging and nesting. Consequently, the woodpecker population declines.

To mitigate the detrimental impact of invasive species on woodpeckers, it is crucial to monitor and control their populations. Removal of invasive species and restoration of native habitats are effective strategies. Furthermore, public education and awareness programs play a vital role in preventing the spread of invasive species and promoting the conservation of woodpecker populations in Southern California.

3. Climate Change

Climate change poses a significant threat to woodpeckers in Southern California. The impacts of climate change, including rising temperatures, changes in precipitation patterns, and increased frequency and intensity of wildfires, have a profound effect on the habitat and survival of these birds.

The warming climate can result in the loss or modification of crucial habitat features that are necessary for woodpeckers, such as dead trees and snags that serve as nesting and foraging areas. Changes in precipitation patterns can disrupt insect populations, which are a vital food source for woodpeckers. Additionally, drought conditions can heighten the risk of wildfires, leading to the destruction of large areas of suitable habitat for these birds.

To mitigate the detrimental effects of climate change on woodpeckers, it is essential that conservation efforts be implemented. The protection and preservation of resilient habitats that can withstand climate change can offer a safe haven for not only woodpeckers but also other wildlife species. Furthermore, promoting sustainable land management practices can help minimize the risk of wildfires and ensure the maintenance of suitable habitats for woodpeckers.

A compelling example illustrating the impact of climate change on woodpeckers is the decline of the acorn woodpecker population in Southern California. The warming climate has resulted in drier conditions, leading to decreased acorn production. Acorns are a primary food source for these woodpeckers, and the scarcity of this resource has had a negative effect on their population.

Some Facts About Southern California Woodpeckers:

  • ✅ Southern California is home to 15 different types of woodpeckers. (Source: Bird Watching HQ)
  • ✅ The Downy Woodpecker is one of the most common woodpeckers in Southern California. (Source: Bird Watching HQ)
  • ✅ Downy Woodpeckers have a small bill and black back with a red spot on the back of their head. (Source: Bird Watching HQ)
  • ✅ The Hairy Woodpecker is another common woodpecker in Southern California. (Source: Bird Watching HQ)
  • ✅ Hairy Woodpeckers are larger than Downy Woodpeckers and have a red patch on the back of their head. (Source: Bird Watching HQ)

Frequently Asked Questions

What are some common woodpecker species found in Southern California?

Some common woodpecker species found in Southern California include the Red-shafted Northern Flicker, Gilded Flicker, Nuttall’s Woodpecker, Ladder-backed Woodpecker, and Red-naped Sapsucker.

What is the distinctive call of the Lewis’s Woodpecker?

The Lewis’s Woodpecker is known for its distinctive call, which is a series of rolling, chattering notes.

How can I attract woodpeckers to my backyard?

You can attract woodpeckers to your backyard by offering suet, sunflower seeds, peanuts, and sugar water in hummingbird feeders. Providing suitable nesting sites such as dead trees or nesting boxes can also help attract woodpeckers.

Where can I find the Gila Woodpecker?

The Gila Woodpecker is primarily found in the southwestern United States, including Southern California, where it prefers habitats such as desert areas, urban parks, and mature forests.

Are woodpeckers year-round residents in Southern California?

Yes, woodpeckers, including species like the Red-shafted Northern Flicker and Nuttall’s Woodpecker, are year-round residents in Southern California.

What are the primary food sources for woodpeckers?

Woodpeckers primarily feed on insects, larvae, ants, beetles, and wood borers found in trees. They also consume fruits, nuts, and seeds, depending on the species.

Julian Goldie - Owner of

Julian Goldie

I'm a bird enthusiast and creator of Chipper Birds, a blog sharing my experience caring for birds. I've traveled the world bird watching and I'm committed to helping others with bird care. Contact me at [email protected] for assistance.