Photo Credits: Chipperbirds.Com by Bobby Wright
Chickens are known for their vocalizations and movements. But, yawning is often overlooked. It’s more than meets the eye! Yawning has many purposes. It helps us understand their physical and mental well-being.
Yawning is a form of communication and social signaling. It shows dominance, submission and territorial behavior. It helps establish social bonds and may release tension or stress.
Yawning may regulate brain temperature and oxygen levels. It could also be a self-cleaning mechanism. It expels foreign particles or organisms from the respiratory system.
Yawning is multifaceted. It impacts social, physiological and health related aspects. So, understanding its reasons helps us enhance our knowledge of chicken behavior and improve their welfare.
Why Do Chickens Yawn
Overview of chicken yawning as a normal process
Chicken yawning is a normal process with multiple purposes. It helps adjust the crop – a muscular pouch in their digestive system that stores food. By yawning and stretching their necks, chickens reposition food for optimal digestion. Plus, it can cool them off on hot days by increasing air flow. Yawning may also be a response to hunger or thirst, or to remove food that’s stuck in their throat. It’s important to note that human and chicken yawning differ significantly.
Yawning can signal certain health issues. For example, gapeworm infection in chickens can cause breathing difficulties and gasping. In such cases, consult a vet for treatment. Severe cases may require culling the infected birds to stop the spread. Regular worm checks and preventive measures help maintain the health of backyard chickens.
Yawning is usually not a cause for concern. But if it’s accompanied by weight loss, bloody diarrhea, pale combs, or other abnormal behaviors, seek professional help. Awareness of potential respiratory problems or something stuck in the throat is crucial. Preventive measures like proper diet and ventilation in chicken coops reduce the risk of respiratory issues.
Understanding the various causes behind yawning in chickens is key for chicken owners. Yawning frequencies and reasons vary between baby and adult chickens. Baby chickens often yawn more as they grow. Yawning doesn’t mean sleepiness – it’s a stretching behavior with multiple physiological functions. Treatment options for gapeworms include vet-prescribed medication. Seeking professional help is important for maintaining the health of backyard chickens.
Explanation of how chickens yawn by swallowing their food
Chickens swallow their food by moving their heads in a downward motion. This action helps the food travel from the mouth to the esophagus, enabling digestion. Swallowing is important for chickens’ health.
Yawning can be used to readjust the crop after a meal or preening. It may also occur when food is stuck in the throat. Yawning is different from human yawning; it is related to physiological processes.
Environmental factors can also affect chicken yawning; they may yawn to cool themselves on hot days. Yawning is also linked to gapeworm infection. If a chicken has such an infection, it may yawn more often to alleviate respiratory distress.
Differentiation of chicken yawning from human yawning
Yawning is something both chickens and humans do. Though, there are distinctions between the two. We can tell them apart by looking at why they yawn and what it looks like.
Chickens yawn to adjust their crop after eating or preening. Humans, however, mainly yawn when they’re tired or bored.
Also, humans can catch a yawn from someone else. But, there’s no proof of this happening with chickens. Plus, a chicken’s yawn can show if it has a gapeworm infection.
To sum up, yawning looks the same in chickens and humans. But, their reasons for doing it and what it means vary. Knowing this helps us spot health problems in chickens.
So, why do chickens yawn? To get some energy and wake up!
Various reasons for chicken yawning:
Chickens may yawn for various reasons. Hunger or thirst, cooling off, or adjusting their crop full of dry feed, could all be causes. Yawning in chickens is unique to humans, and can be due to a gapeworm infection. Other factors: after a big meal, preening, food stuck in throat, a warm/hot day, or stretching their necks. Contagious yawning can happen among chickens, so collective yawning could occur in flocks. Usually, it’s not an issue, yet other signs like weight loss, bloody diarrhea, pale combs, or difficulty breathing should be observed. If so, consult a bird veterinarian for medical assistance. This ensures the health of the chickens.
Symptoms of Gapeworm Infection in Chickens
Photo Credits: Chipperbirds.Com by Juan King
Overview of gapeworm infection and its impact on chickens
Gapeworm infection in chickens is a severe problem that affects their health. These parasites infect the respiratory system, causing difficulty breathing, coughing, and gasping. Symptoms include weight loss, bloody diarrhea, and pale combs. The worms latch onto the trachea, blocking airflow. If left untreated, it can be fatal.
Treatment usually involves consulting a vet to prescribe medications like Levamisole. In severe cases, euthanasia may be needed to prevent further spread of the disease.
Preventing gapeworm infection is key. Check for signs of infestation regularly. Good hygiene and ventilation in housing areas helps too. Clean drinking water is also important.
Look out for these silent signs of a chicken’s health: weight loss, bloody diarrhea, and pale combs.
Description of symptoms including weight loss, bloody diarrhea, and pale combs
Weight-loss, bloody diarrhea, and pale combs are some tell-tale signs of gapeworm infection in chickens. It can have a great effect on the birds’ health, leading to various symptoms. Weight-loss is a common one. Bloody diarrhea is another indication, due to the damage caused by the parasite inside. Pale combs, instead of being red and vibrant in healthy chickens, could mean anemia or decreased blood circulation. All these signs point to the severity of the gapeworm infection, and the need for proper treatment and prevention.
Though, these symptoms aren’t exclusive to gapeworm infections. They could be caused by other factors such as dietary issues or illnesses. Talking to a vet is essential for accurate diagnosis and treatment. Levamisole medicines may be recommended for gapeworm infections. Infected birds may also have to be culled to stop the infection from spreading.
In conclusion, weight-loss, bloody diarrhea, and pale combs can indicate a gapeworm infection. It’s important to not overlook these signs as they could signify serious health issues. Consulting a vet is key to successful diagnosis and treatment. Regular worm checks and prevention are great for maintaining poultry health and stopping gapeworms from spreading. Gasping for breath, chickens infected by gapeworms show even fowl can have breathing difficulties.
Explanation of how gapeworms can cause breathing difficulties and gasping for breath
Gapeworms, a pesky parasite found in chickens, can cause serious breathing issues and gasping for breath. These worms mostly inhabit the trachea and lungs of the host bird. They can obstruct the respiratory system, leading to problematic breathing and gasping. The worms attach to the trachea, causing inflammation and blockage of the airways. Chickens may display signs like coughing, wheezing, open-mouthed breathing, and gasping.
This respiratory distress is due to blockage in the airways. As the worms grow and reproduce, they prevent vital airflow. This makes it hard for chickens to breathe correctly, and they may visibly gasp for breath.
It’s not only chickens that suffer from gapeworms. Other bird species can be infected too. So, it’s important to take preventive measures like regular deworming and keeping living conditions clean.
If chickens have severe breathing problems or constant gasping despite treatment, consult a vet specialised in avian medicine. They can diagnose the issue and offer treatments specific to gapeworm infections.
Pro Tip: Regular monitoring and prevention through deworming can help reduce the risk of gapeworm infections in chickens.
Recommendation to consult a veterinarian and use Levamisole medications for treatment
Consulting a veterinarian is highly recommended for the treatment of chickens with potential gapeworm infection. Symptoms like weight loss, bloody diarrhea, and pale combs can occur. Also, breathing difficulties and gasping for breath may be present. Levamisole medications are commonly used and effective in treating gapeworms. It is important to follow the vet’s instructions regarding dosage and administration.
For chicken health issues, consulting a bird specialist is advisable. Such a specialist understands poultry diseases and treatments. This ensures chickens get appropriate care and treatment, leading to their overall well-being.
Preventive measures are essential in managing gapeworm infections in chickens. Regular worm checks should be conducted to detect any signs of infestation early. Also, keeping the chicken coop clean and providing fresh water can reduce the risk of parasite infections.
By following these recommendations and working with a veterinarian, chicken owners can effectively address and manage gapeworm infection in their flock.
Advising the killing of infected birds to prevent the spread of infection
Advising euthanization of infected birds is a must, to stop the spread of infection in chicken flocks. They can pass on illnesses, like gapeworm or respiratory infections, through contact or when living in the same space. By removing sick birds, it limits the spread and safeguards the remaining birds.
Furthermore, it is an act of kindness. Gapeworm can cause chickens pain, such as weight loss, bloody diarrhea, and breathing troubles. As treatments are limited, euthanizing them avoids unnecessary suffering.
For proper euthanasia, consult a vet for minimal pain and distress. Dispose of the bodies correctly too, to stop disease agents being passed on.
To reduce the chances of birds getting infected, practice good biosecurity protocols. Clean living environments, no connection to wild birds or animals, and quarantine new birds before introducing them to existing flocks.
Pro Tip: Get a vet who specializes in avian medicine. They will identify the issue and suggest treatments or steps to take, using their bird health knowledge.
Emphasizing the importance of regular worm checks and preventive measures
Regular worm checks and preventive measures are a must for keeping chickens healthy. It’s important to identify and tackle any worm infections. This can minimize their negative impacts, like weight loss, decreased egg production, poor growth rate, and weakened immune system.
Focus on preventive measures too. These include:
- Practicing good hygiene – cleaning and disinfecting coops and nesting areas
- Providing clean water sources, away from wild birds or rodents
- Rotating pastures or outdoor areas where chickens graze
- Avoiding overcrowding to reduce stress.
Consult with a vet specializing in bird treatment. Get advice on best practices for preventing worm infestations and appropriate deworming medications, depending on the area.
Regular worm checks and preventive measures are key to keeping chickens healthy and productive. Stay vigilant and take proactive steps against worm infestations. This way, you’ll create a safe and thriving environment for your flock. Don’t forget, those yawning chickens might be silently judging your sleep habits!
Chickens Yawning: Notable Factors and Precautions
Photo Credits: Chipperbirds.Com by Elijah Wright
Clarification of differences between chicken yawning and human yawning
Comprehending the special behaviors and reasons behind chicken yawning and human yawning can make clear the differences between the two. Though the act of yawning is shared, the causes and purposes differ.
A table can demonstrate this contrast:
|Differences Between Chicken Yawning and Human Yawning
|– Adjusting crop after a meal
|– Readjusting crop after preening
|– Food stuck in throat
|– Cooling off in hot weather
|– Stretching necks
|– Contagious yawning among chickens
|– Associated with tiredness or sleepiness
|– Responding to social contagion
It is essential to know that while humans usually yawn when they are sleepy or tired, chickens yawn for other purposes such as readjusting their crop, stretching their necks, or cooling in hot weather. Additionally, contagious yawning is observed among chickens, but not in humans.
In conclusion, comprehending the distinctions between chicken yawning and human yawning can help recognize regular chicken behavior from potential health problems. Chicken yawning is not just a stretch, it’s really serious.
Summary of various reasons for chicken yawning:
Chickens may yawn for a variety of reasons. After eating a lot, they may adjust their crop, which is normal. Yawning also helps food move down their esophagus and relieves any throat discomfort. Additionally, they can yawn to cool off in hot weather, stretch their necks, or due to contagious yawning among other chickens. Usually, this isn’t a cause for concern.
However, if yawning is accompanied by certain symptoms, such as weight loss, bloody diarrhea, or pale combs, it may suggest a gapeworm infection. These are parasitic worms that can make chickens have breathing difficulties and gasp for breath. In this case, consult a vet and use Levamisole medications. Severe cases may need to be culled to prevent spread. Regular worm checks and preventive measures can help chickens stay healthy.
To reduce the chances of respiratory issues, take preventive steps like providing good ventilation and avoiding overcrowding. Young chicks may yawn more often than adults. Though yawning doesn’t mean sleepiness, it’s a stretching behavior.
In conclusion, chicken yawning can have many explanations. But, if certain symptoms occur, a vet should be contacted. Taking proactive steps to identify and address health problems is important for chicken well-being.
Reminder of yawning usually not being a concern for backyard chickens
Chickens may yawn for various reasons. It’s not usually a cause for alarm. It can be a way to adjust their crop after a meal, preening, or cooling off in warm weather. Contagious yawning can happen, but it’s not often an issue. Yawning can also be a form of stretching.
If chickens yawn and show signs of illness like weight loss, poor appetite, or difficulty breathing, it’s important to take them to a bird specialist. They can identify potential respiratory issues or something stuck in the crop or throat.
It’s good to keep chickens healthy with regular check-ups and worm prevention. Yet, when they yawn, remember it’s likely no cause for concern. But, if symptoms accompany the yawning, a vet should be consulted.
Indications for consulting a veterinarian if accompanied by specific symptoms
It’s essential to get professional vet advice if your chicken has specific symptoms that signify something wrong. Seeking a vet can help recognize what’s causing the symptoms and provide the right treatment, to make sure your chicken’s healthy.
- Go to the vet if your chicken has weight loss, bloody diarrhea, or a pale comb. These could be signs of a serious condition, like gapeworm infection.
- If they’re having trouble breathing or gasping, go to the vet. Respiratory problems can badly impact a chicken’s health and need urgent attention.
- If something’s stuck in their throat or crop, see a vet. Expert help can stop potential complications and safely get it out.
- Don’t ignore any signs of respiratory diseases or persistent yawning. A vet can give an exact diagnosis and suggest the best treatment.
Early detection and treatment can stop further issues and even save your chicken’s life. So find a vet who specializes in bird care, so you can give your feathered friend the best care.
Importance of finding a veterinarian specializing in bird treatment
Seeking a vet who specializes in bird treatment is essential to address health issues in chickens. These vets have the knowledge and experience needed to provide the right care for avian patients. They know birds’ anatomy, physiology, and behavior, which helps diagnose and treat conditions specific to these animals.
These vets can identify and address health concerns in chickens. They understand gapeworm infection, which causes breathing difficulties and distress in birds. They can spot symptoms of something stuck in the throat or crop, too. These professionals can also provide advice on nutrition, housing, and flock management to maintain optimal health in birds. Moreover, they can suggest ways to prevent an impacted crop.
Plus, these vets have access to diagnostic tools and medications designed for avian health. They can do comprehensive exams, and tests if needed, plus prescribe treatments. This specialized care makes sure chicken issues are properly addressed.
Pro Tip: Look for a vet who has experience with avian species and specializes in bird treatment. This will ensure your chickens get the best care from someone knowledgeable about their needs and potential health challenges.
The Causes Behind Chickens Yawning
Exploration of various causes for chicken yawning:
Exploring the various causes of chicken yawning is important for identifying any underlying health concerns. It can be due to various reasons, such as adjusting their crop, moving food down the esophagus, or even suffocating from worms or diseases.
Preventative measures should be taken to reduce respiratory problems, like maintaining good ventilation and cleanliness in the chicken coop. Moreover, baby chickens and adults have different yawning frequencies and reasons.
Yawning in chickens is not necessarily an indication of sleepiness, but rather a stretching behavior linked to certain physiological functions. In cases of gapeworm infection, Levamisole medications should be considered for treatment.
So, is chicken yawning a stretch or a breathless plea for help?
Significance of identifying respiratory problems or something stuck in the throat
Identifying respiratory problems and throat obstructions in chickens is crucial. These can lead to serious health issues and even death if left untreated. Blockages can make it hard for a chicken to swallow and breathe, causing distress and discomfort.
Various factors can cause respiratory problems in chickens, such as infections, allergies, or environmental conditions. It’s important to identify them quickly to prevent further complications. If you see your chicken yawning a lot, this could be a sign that something’s wrong.
Also, watch out for foreign objects stuck in the throat. This can stop proper swallowing and block the airway, creating a choking hazard. Recognize this issue quickly to remove the obstruction or get medical help.
Don’t let your chickens suffer! Take preventive measures to reduce respiratory problems.
Preventative measures to reduce respiratory problems in chickens
Maintaining good biosecurity practices is essential for poultry health. Follow strict quarantine procedures when introducing new birds, regularly disinfect equipment, and minimize contact with other flocks. This helps prevent diseases from spreading.
Also, it’s crucial to give chickens a balanced diet rich in nutrition and vitamins. This supports their immune system and makes them less susceptible to respiratory problems. Plus, adequate nutrition and vitamins promote their overall health and well-being.
To reduce respiratory issues in chickens, take a multi-faceted approach. This includes keeping a clean environment, practicing good biosecurity, and ensuring proper nutrition. By doing this, chicken owners will keep their flock healthy and happy.
Not to mention, when we watch chickens yawn in their cute little styles, it reminds us to relax and take care of ourselves too.
Variation in yawning frequencies and reasons between baby chickens and adults
Yawning in baby chickens and adults is different. Babies yawn more – due to growth and consuming food often. Adults yawn less – they have a regulated feeding pattern.
The reasons for yawning vary too. Babies mainly yawn to adjust their crop, and adults may yawn to stretch, or remove food stuck in their throat.
It’s important to monitor yawning in both babies and adults. If there are big changes or yawning that doesn’t stop, it could be a sign of health issues. To help prevent this, regular worm checks and good nutrition is essential.
Next time you see your chickens yawn, remember there’s more to it than just a morning stretch – it’s fascinating behavior!
Description of yawning as a stretching behavior rather than a sign of sleepiness
Chickens may yawn, but not for the same reasons as humans! It’s actually a stretching behavior, to help them adjust their crop after eating or preening. Yawning can also help them cool off in hot weather. But, if it’s accompanied by other symptoms like weight loss, bloody diarrhea, pale combs, breathing difficulties, or gasping for breath, a vet should be consulted.
It’s important to differentiate between regular yawning and those caused by respiratory issues or gapeworm infection. As a preventative measure, proper hygiene and regular worm checks can help reduce the risk of respiratory problems.
In conclusion, yawning in chickens is not a sign of sleepiness, but rather a stretching behavior to readjust their crop or alleviate discomfort. Be sure to recognize any underlying causes and seek professional help if necessary, for the well-being of your backyard chickens.
Treatment options for chickens with gapeworms
Seek professional advice from a veterinarian! Administer Levamisole medications as prescribed. Consider culling infected birds to stop the spread. Regularly check for worms to catch infestations early. Take preventive measures like keeping hygiene and a clean environment.
Yawning in Chickens: A Closer Look
Photo Credits: Chipperbirds.Com by Walter Taylor
Elaboration on the various possible causes of chicken yawning:
Yawning is a common behavior in chickens. Possible causes vary.
- After a large meal, they may yawn to adjust their crop. This is a pouch-like organ at the base of their neck, where food is stored and digested. Yawning helps food move through their digestive system.
- Sometimes, chickens swallow food too quickly or in large pieces. This can get stuck in their throat or esophagus. Yawning helps move it down.
- In other cases, yawning may signal a serious issue. Gapeworm infection, for example, can make them struggle to breathe. If they yawn due to distress, it should be taken seriously.
Chicken owners should be aware of the various causes of yawning. Vet check-ups and deworming treatments can help reduce the risk of respiratory problems and keep chickens healthy.
Bottom line: Chickens yawn to adjust their crop after a big meal, not because they heard a funny joke.
Discussion on the normal behavior of adjusting the crop after a large meal
Chickens adjust their crop after a large meal – an important process. This helps food move down the esophagus and into the stomach, where it is broken down and absorbed. How? By regurgitating and re-swallowing. This breaks down large chunks, improving digestion and nutrient absorption.
Adjusting the crop ensures their digestive system is functioning properly. It prevents any blockages from improperly digested food. And, if the chicken has eaten too quickly or consumed large portions, regurgitating and re-chewing helps break down food particles.
An impacted crop in chickens is serious. It can ruffle feathers!
Acknowledgment of the potential danger posed by an impacted crop
An impacted crop in chickens can be a danger. The crop, which is part of the digestive system, holds food for digestion. If impacted, it can cause serious health issues. These include regurgitation, malnutrition, dehydration, and death if not treated.
Recognizing the risk posed by an impacted crop is essential. The crop helps with digestion. Any obstruction can disrupt this. Undigested food can build up and cause blockage. This puts pressure on the bird’s respiratory system and other organs.
Impacted crops can also lead to infection. Stagnant food provides an environment for bacterial growth. This can cause infections in the digestive tract. Symptoms worsen when this happens.
If you think your chicken may have an impacted crop, get veterinary help. A veterinarian specialized in avian medicine can diagnose and treat the condition.
Prevent your chickens from being impacted. Monitor them closely for distended crop, reduced appetite, regurgitation, bad breath, and general signs of discomfort.
Shared preventive measures for avoiding an impacted crop
Preventing impacted crops in chickens is key. To achieve this, follow these preventive measures:
- Ensure feed size is correct.
- Clean water must be always available.
- Monitor birds’ behavior and health.
- Provide a balanced diet.
- Give enough space for activity.
These preventive measures reduce the risk of crop impaction. They promote proper digestion and prevent blockages. This enhances the chickens’ well-being. It is essential for owners to prioritize these measures – this mitigates the dangers of an impacted crop.
Explanation of gapeworm infection and its symptoms
Gapeworm infections in chickens, caused by the parasite Syngamus trachea, are a problem. It affects the respiratory system and can be serious if left untreated.
Coughing, wheezing, difficulty breathing, and gasping for breath are all symptoms of this infection. The adult worms attach to the trachea, leading to inflammation and irritation.
Weight loss, anemia, bloody diarrhea, and pale combs may also occur. This is a sign of severe infection that needs treatment right away.
Fortunately, Levamisole medications can help.
To stop the spread of infection, infected birds must be culled. Regular checks are also essential for monitoring and early detection. Hygiene in poultry housing and proper nutrition can reduce the risk of gapeworm infection.
Gapeworm infections happen often among domesticated birds, and have been reported around the world (Smith et al., 2021).
Prevention and treatment options for both respiratory disease and gapeworm infection
Consulting a vet is the best way to prevent and treat both respiratory disease and gapeworm infection. Bacterial infections may be treated with antibiotics. Levamisole can fight gapeworms in chickens. Isolation of infected birds from the rest of the flock can stop the spread. In severe cases, euthanasia may be necessary.
It is vital to identify and deal with causes of yawning in chickens. Good ventilation in coops stops respiratory issues and yawning from worms or diseases. Inspections should be done to check for any signs of discomfort or illness. If necessary, vet help should be sought out. To keep chickens healthy, preventive measures and prompt health action should be taken.
Emphasis on the importance of seeking veterinary help when necessary
Seeking veterinary help is key for chickens’ well-being. Consult a vet who specializes in bird treatment if there are signs of yawning. They have the expertise and knowledge to diagnose and treat any underlying conditions. This ensures proper care and appropriate treatment for potential respiratory problems, throat obstructions, or gapeworm infections.
The importance of seeking veterinary help cannot be overstated. Vets can provide a professional assessment and tailored advice. Yawning in chickens could point to a more serious condition. Consider impacted crop or respiratory disease. These need timely intervention from a professional to avoid complications and ensure proper treatment.
Personal research or anecdotal info may not be accurate. Vets specialized in bird treatment have the right tools and medications to address chicken ailments. Not all instances of chicken yawning need immediate veterinary attention. But if accompanied by symptoms like weight loss, pale combs, gasping, or bloody diarrhea, seeking help is imperative. Identifying red flag symptoms early can improve recovery chances.
In conclusion, seeking veterinary help is essential. They are the best resource to ensure the well-being and health of chickens.
Chickens yawn – that’s a fact!
But why? Researchers suggest it could be for temperature regulation or stress relief. More research is necessary to truly understand why. Nevertheless, this initial study gives us an insight into how chickens act and can help us explore this fascinating subject further.
“name”: “Why do chickens yawn?”,
“text”: “Chickens yawn for various reasons, including adjusting their crop, swallowing stuck food, and cooling themselves off in hot weather.”
“name”: “What are some common causes of yawning in chickens?”,
“text”: “Yawning in chickens can be caused by adjusting their crop, helping food move down their digestive tract, or cooling themselves off in hot weather. It can also be a sign of respiratory problems or the presence of gapeworms.”
“name”: “Is yawning in chickens a sign of a life-threatening condition?”,
“text”: “Yawning in chickens is usually harmless and part of their normal behavior. However, if yawning is accompanied by symptoms such as labored breathing, gasping for air, or a squishy crop, it may indicate a serious health issue and veterinary attention should be sought.”
“name”: “How can I help a chicken if it has something stuck in its throat or crop?”,
“text”: “If a chicken has something stuck in its throat or crop, it can be gently removed using a cotton swab or by massaging the crop. Feeding the chicken small amounts of olive oil or providing fluids can also help move the trapped item through the digestive tract. If these methods don’t work, it is recommended to consult a veterinarian.”
“name”: “What are some natural ways to prevent yawning and digestive issues in chickens?”,
“text”: “To prevent yawning and digestive issues in chickens, it is important to provide them with a natural diet consisting of fruits, vegetables, and insects. Avoid feeding them dry or chemically broken down food. Using wood shavings instead of straw or hay in the coop can also prevent the risk of an impacted crop.”
“name”: “When should I consult a veterinarian for yawning in chickens?”,
“text”: “If yawning in chickens is accompanied by symptoms such as gasping for air, coughing, loss of appetite, weight loss, eye discharge, or runny nose, it is recommended to consult a veterinarian. A veterinarian who specializes in avian health can provide the necessary treatment and advice for any underlying health issues.”